Summer 1859: Following the great gold rush, the Griffith brothers from Kentucky (George and David) traveled to Central City. Finding the area overcrowded, they continued on following the south fork of Clear Creek toward the gold discoveries at present Idaho Springs. Within two days, on June 17, George Griffith hits pay dirt. The news travels quickly and a small and growing settlement begins, known as “George’s Town.”
1864: After the collapse of the gold-mining era, silver is discovered in the area and Georgetown booms again, bringing experienced miners from California and Nevada who realize previous mining attempts in the town and surrounding mountainside had been weak, leading to the formation of the Argentine Mining District.
1866: By year’s end, Georgetown is growing faster than any other Colorado community. Small hotels are opening up for tourists but the town still lacks a railroad.
October 1871: Representatives from Georgetown meet with officials of the Colorado Central Railroad to discuss a better way to transport the millions of dollars of ore coming out of the region.
December 1872: The first railroad line up Clear Creek Canyon reaches Black Hawk. The construction, funded by bonds from Clear Creek and Gilpin Counties, was organized by William A.H. Loveland, a fifty-niner and proponent of the Colorado Central railroad.
1877: The railroad reaches Idaho Springs in June, thanks to financier Jay Gould who controlled the Union Pacific (UP) and supplied the necessary funds to complete both the route to Idaho Springs and the later route to Georgetown, completed in August 1877. The railroad makes access open for freight, ore, consumers and passengers to Georgetown. The Rocky Mountains are open for tourists.
1879: Georgetown becomes the “Silver Queen of Colorado” for only a short time that year when news of large silver strikes spread across the region from Leadville, one of the greatest strikes to date. Gould strives to have the Colorado Central be the first railline to reach Leadville. The track to reach Leadville from Georgetown is an obstacle due to narrowing of the valley west of the city and an area where the average grade is over 6 percent (too steep for most trains). UP chief engineer, Jacob Blickensderfer, devises a system of curves and bridges, reducing the average grade to 3 percent. The plan includes three hairpin turns, four bridges and a 30-degree horseshoe curve from Georgetown to Silver Plume.
1884: The first trains arrive in Silver Plume. Another line, the Denver & Rio Grande (D&RG), is completed into Leadville from the south Gould’s interest in pushing the Georgetown line over the mountains wanes. The Georgetown, Breckenridge and Leadville Railroad line ends permanently a few miles past Silver Plume.
1880s and into the early 1900s: The community and the Georgetown Loop become a tourist center for those who venture West to encounter the wild ruggedness and romance. Tourism in the West develops around railroad excursions. With seven trains a day running out of Denver at the height of its popularity, the Georgetown Loop is Colorado’s scenic “must see” and a deal at only $3 round-trip. Guidebooks, pamphlets and postcards help send the images of the steep canyons and mountain peaks accessible by train across the nation.
Early 1900s: The advent of the automobile brings mountain tourists to Colorado but dramatically reduces excursion train trip revenues for the railroad. The Georgetown Loop runs two trains a day from May through September only.
1938: The last of the trains run from Denver to Silver Plume. The line from Idaho Springs to Silver Plume is abandoned and the Georgetown Loop dismantled, ending a colorful era of railroad history.
1940s: The demand for manpower on the battlefields and in supply production during World War II prompts the final closing of Georgetown’s gold and silver mines, compounding railroad losses.
1941: The final miles of track from Golden to Idaho Springs are closed.
1959: The centennial celebration of the discovery of gold in Georgetown and the surrounding areas is formed under the leadership of James Grafton Rogers, chair of the Colorado Historical Society’s board of directors. Almost 100 acres of mining claims and mills are donated, including the Lebanon-Everett mines. The Society begins a program of land acquisition and lease with plans to eventually reconstruct the entire length of the Georgetown Loop.
1969: Work begins on opening the Lebanon mine tunnel. The tunnel is cleared its full length and wired for lighting. Excavation outside uncovers the sites of four mine buildings apparent in historic photographs, including a blacksmith shop, a miners’ change room or “dry,” a mine manager’s office and a tool shed.
1973: Construction of the rail line begins after the Union Pacific donates the track and ties for the reconstruction of the Georgetown Loop. Rolling stock is gathered and bridges set in place.
1975: The first operating season of the new Georgetown Loop operates on a small portion of completed track.
1977: The line slowly lengthens from Silver Plume and tracks reach the upper end of Devil’s Gate.
1978: The historic buildings at the Lebanon mine are reconstructed and opened to the public and visitors. The Lebanon Mill is stabilized and rebuilt through the Society’s work with historians, archaeologists and a preservation architect.
1982: A $1 million grant from the Boettcher Foundation, in honor of E. Warren Willard, a former partner of Boettcher & Company and a member of the Colorado Historical Society’s board of directors, finances the final segment of the railroad’s reconstruction, the Devil’s Gate High Bridge.
August 1, 1984: Governor Richard D. Lamm dedicates the Devil’s Gate High Bridge, and the entire reconstruction of the Georgetown Loop is complete and open for visitors along the entire route.
August 19, 1985: The Colorado Historical Society turns its attention to increasing visitor facilities and historical interpretation along the route. In August 1985, the Morrison Valley Center, now known as the Devil’s Gate Station, and the Morrison Theater are dedicated. The station currently includes boarding and ticketing areas; visitor facilities, parking and a slide show theater.
1985: The historic Silver Plume Depot is restored.
1986: An engine house is completed to service locomotives. The Colorado Historical Society also completes a series of interpretive markers throughout the park ranging from historic events to the park’s geology and natural history. This interpretation is made possible with a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities, which also sponsors the publication of a book, The Georgetown Loop: A Capsule History and Guide.
1987 to present: Additional visitor amenities have been added, including hiking trails and restrooms, and new loading platforms. At the Silver Plume Depot, a new car building interprets and displays rolling stock and other railroad-related exhibits.
THE LEBANON SILVER MINE
1869: Work begins at the Lebanon mine and the Lebanon Mining Company is incorporated in 1871.
1881: The mining company finally strikes the Hise Lode 1,100 feet from the portal. Profitable veins are found and the company enjoys an excellent reputation as a solid producer.
1880s: In 1885, the Lebanon is one of only 50 mines in the Georgetown area still producing silver ore. The tunnel reaches its greatest length of 1,200 feet in 1886, but drastic silver price declines end further work. By the end of the decade, the mine is silent.
Today: Today you can tour the Lebanon Silver Mine (accessed only by the railroad). Trained tour guides will lead you through the mine, show you the mine manager’s office, the change room (also called a “dry”), and the blacksmith shop and tool shed. This is a walking tour lasting 1 hour and 15 minutes so comfortable walking shoes are recommended. The mine is a constant 44 degrees Fahrenheit, and a jacket or sweater is a must.
Mine tours are not available on last train departure of the day.